Tools for Undergraduate Research in Environmental Science and Field Biology:
(Note: Though still works-in-progress, Units I, II and III all contain content. Unit IV will become available sometime in the future!)

I. Scientific Inquiry: How to identify a research topic, question and hypothesis

II. Fundamentals of Field Sampling: How to design a field study

III. Graphing and Statistics: How to interpret your data using MS Excel

IV. Communicating Your Results: Tips for writing effective papers and making clear presentations

How to interpret your data using MS Excel

Information in this Unit is presented in two forms:
  • The Quick Links to the left begin with a glossary of statistical terms, information on deciding which statistical test to use, and some tips for using formulas in MS Excel. Below those links are various directions for using MS Excel to create graphs and do statistical analysis. There are also some Quick Links to Appendices on various statistical topics.
  • The links in the middle of the page below are to a more comprehensive statistics manual that will help you understand basic statistical concepts and interpret your output.

Because all of this information is web-based, it can be updated, changed, modified and improved over time. Please let me know if you find any errors, if you find something that's unclear, or if you have any suggestions!

singler -at- franklinpierce -dot- edu
(funky format to prevent emails from robots)

online statistics manual for beginners

pdf of statistics manual for beginners with full original content (can be downloaded; directions are for MS Excel 2003)


Gotelli, N.J. and A.M. Ellison. 2004. A Primer of Ecological Statistics. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical Methods. 7th ed. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Sokal, R.R. and F.J. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry, 3rd ed. W.H. Freeman & Company, New York.

This site created and maintained by
Dr. Rhine Singleton
Associate Professor of Biology & Environmental Science
Franklin Pierce University, Rindge, NH 03461
You can contact me at: singler at franklinpierce dot edu